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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 285-298

Pattern of peripheral neuropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory properties and their association with disease activity


1 Department of Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Niveen Abdallah Ibrahim
Master of Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/err.err_28_19

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Aim To study clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory properties of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their association with disease activity. Patients and methods A total of 30 patients who met the American College of Rheumatology case definition criteria for SLE-PN and 30 age-matched and sex-matched patients with SLE without PN were selected from the Main Alexandria University Hospital Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation clinic. Demographic data, SLE-related clinical, laboratory data, Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) index, and nerve conduction studies were done. This case–control study compared clinical and SLE-related features, laboratory, and SLAM index in patients with SLE with PN versus those without neuropathy. Results The results showed that the most common PN subtype was sensorimotor polyneuropathy which occurred in 18 (60%) patients; the most common PN pathology was axonal degeneration, which occurred 19 (63.3%) patients; and the most common associated nerve entrapment was carpal tunnel syndrome in 10 (33.3%) patients. In comparison between group I (SLE with PN) and group II (SLE without PN), there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding demographic data, disease duration, and lupus clinical features, except malar rash and lupus nephritis, which showed significant increase in patients with SLE with PN compared with patients with SLE without PN (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference among PN subtype groups regarding sex, age, and immunological markers. Regarding diseases activity, SLAM index showed a significant increase in patients with SLE with PN compared with patients with SLE without PN (P=0.006). Conclusion The pattern of neuropathy in SLE is mainly axonal. Moreover, the most common PN subtype is sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The study suggests significant association of PN in patients with SLE with nephritis, malar rash, and SLAM index.


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